Tuesday, November 30, 2004


Also spelled  amphictiony (from Greek amphiktyones, “dwellers around”)  in ancient Greece, association of neighbouring states formed around a religious centre. The most important was the Amphictyonic League (Delphic Amphictyony). Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, the league was centred first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Member states sent two kinds

Indochina Wars

In the latter half of the 19th century, Vietnam was gradually conquered by the French,

Sunday, November 28, 2004


Wool has been the material most widely used for making the warp, or the parallel series of threads that run lengthwise in the fabric of the tapestry. The width-running, weft, or filling threads, which are passed at right angles above and below the warp threads, thereby completely covering them, are also most commonly of wool. The advantages of wool in the weaving of tapestries

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Encyclopaedia, China

The contribution from the East to the history of encyclopaedias is distinctive and covers a longer period than that of the West. The Chinese have produced encyclopaedias for approximately 2,000 years, but traditionally they differ from the modern Western encyclopaedia in that they are mainly anthologies of significant literature with some elements of the dictionary.

Friday, November 26, 2004

Rio De Janeiro Botanical Garden

Portuguese  Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro   one of the great tropical botanical gardens and arboretums of the world. It was founded in 1808 by John, prince regent of the United Kingdom of Brazil and Portugal (later King John VI), for introducing and acclimatizing economically beneficial plants brought from other tropical regions of the world. The garden, located on a 350-acre (141-hectare) site below high peaks, has a collection


Russian  Uralsk , also spelled  Ural'sk  city, western Kazakhstan, along the Ural (Zhayyq) River. Founded in 1613 or 1622 by Cossacks fleeing a tsarist punitive campaign, it was known as Yaitsky Gorodok until 1775, when its name was changed following the Pugachov Rebellion. The town was a centre of both the Stenka Razin (1667) and Yemelyan Pugachov (1773) uprisings and was the headquarters of the Ural Cossacks. It had a lively trade with

Thursday, November 25, 2004


City (“district”) and port, Manawatu-Wanganui local government region, southwestern North Island, New Zealand, near the mouth of the Wanganui River. The site lies within a tract bought by the New Zealand Company in 1840. The company established a settlement in 1841 and named it Petre. It was renamed in 1844, the present name deriving from a Maori term meaning “big mouth,” “big bay,” or “big

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


The first use of “sleep” refers to nocturnal rest, the second to death.

Tuesday, November 23, 2004


Town and metropolitan borough in the northwestern part of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, historic county of Lancashire, England. It lies along the River Douglas and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The borough includes large industrial and commercial centres such as the towns of Wigan and Leigh, suburban neighbourhoods, and small rural

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Art, African, Ekoi

The Ekoi peoples (Anyang, Boki, Ejagham, Keaka, and Yako) are best known for their large, skin-covered masks, which have two or even three faces, and for their smaller headpieces, which represent a head or an entire figure. The headpieces and masks have metal teeth, inlaid eyes, and frequently pegs to represent hair, which, alternatively, may be carved in elaborate coils. They

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Bienville, Jean-baptiste Le Moyne De

Jean-Baptiste was the eighth son of Canadian pioneer Charles Le Moyne. He entered the French navy at age 12 and served with his noted elder brother, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, in naval engagements (1696–97) in Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic during

Friday, November 19, 2004

Germanic Religion And Mythology, Minor Aesir

A number of minor deities are also ranked among the Aesir. The god Heimdall (Heimdal[l]r) is particularly interesting, but rather enigmatic. His antagonism with Loki, with whom he struggles for the possession of the Brísingamen necklace, results in their killing each other in the Ragnarök, according to Snorri. Heimdall is of mysterious origin: he is the son of nine mothers,

Wednesday, November 17, 2004


The site of Tokyo has been inhabited since ancient times; the small fishing village of Edo existed there for

Monday, November 15, 2004

Benacerraf, Baruj

From the age of five until the outbreak of World War II, Benacerraf

Levertov, Denise

Levertov's father was an immigrant Russian Jew who converted to Christianity, married a Welsh woman, and became an Anglican clergyman.

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

East Detroit

City, Macomb county, Michigan, U.S., 10 miles (16 km) north-northeast of Detroit. It is primarily a residential suburb of Detroit but does have such commerce as truck and poultry farming, as well as light manufacturing. First settled in 1837, it was on the military road (now Gratiot Avenue) connecting Fort Wayne (Detroit) with Fort Gratiot (Port Huron). Equidistant between Detroit and Mount

Razor Clam

Any of the species of marine bivalve mollusks of the family Solenidae. In England the species of the genera Ensis and Solen are called razor shells. The Solenidae are common in intertidal sands and muds, particularly of temperate seas. These bivalves have narrow and elongated razorlike shells up to about 20 cm (8 inches) long. They have a large active foot that enables them

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Cambodia, Flag Of

In different artistic representations, the central building of Angkor Wat has appeared on Khmer national flags since the 19th century, in the early days of the French protectorate over Cambodia. The first flag was red bordered in blue with the temple in white. The flag was “modernized” in 1948 by adoption of unequal horizontal stripes of dark blue, red, and dark blue, and the

Monday, November 08, 2004

Locke, Alain (leroy)

Graduated in philosophy from Harvard University (1907), Locke was the first black Rhodes scholar, studying at Oxford (1907–10) and the University of Berlin (1910–11). He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from Harvard (1918). For almost 40 years,

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Devonshire, William Cavendish, 1st Duke Of, Marquess Of Hartington, Earl Of Devonshire, Baron Cavendish Of Hardwick

Cavendish was the eldest son of the 3rd earl of Devonshire (and succeeded to the title in 1684). On his return from a youthful grand

Friday, November 05, 2004

Israeli, Isaac Ben Solomon


Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Benda, Georg (anton)

The third son of Jan Jirí Benda and his wife, Dorota Brixi, both musicians, and brother of the violinist František Benda, he went with his family to Berlin in 1742. He played violin in the royal orchestra (1742–49) and for nearly 30 years (from

Azikiwe, Nnamdi

Azikiwe received much of his early education in the United States (1925–34). In 1934 he went to the Gold Coast (now Ghana), where he worked as a newspaper editor before returning to Nigeria in 1937. There he founded a chain of newspapers and also became directly involved

Monday, November 01, 2004

Houston, University Of

State university system consisting of the main campus in Houston, Texas, U.S., the downtown campus in Houston, and branches at Clear Lake and Victoria. Additional locations at Cinco Ranch and Sugar Land provide upper-level undergraduate and graduate programs. The main campus consists of 12 colleges, including the Cullen College of Engineering, the Conrad N. Hilton College