Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Don Juan

Fictitious character who is a symbol of libertinism. Originating in popular legend, he was first given literary personality in the tragic drama El burlador de Sevilla (1630; “The Seducer of Seville,” translated in The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest), attributed to the Spanish dramatist Tirso de Molina. Through Tirso's tragedy, Don Juan became a universal character,

Monday, April 26, 2004

Stead, Christina Ellen

Stead was educated at New South Wales Teachers College; she traveled widely and at various times lived in the United States, Paris, and London. In the early 1940s she worked as a screenwriter for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios,

Polish Literature, Literature in independent Poland

The restoration of the country's independence in 1918 decisively affected Polish literature. The period between 1918 and 1939 was characterized by richness, variety, and increasing contact with other European literatures, especially through the publication of translations. Lyrical poetry predominated for nearly a decade after 1918. The periodical Zdrój (“The Fountainhead”) showed

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Conestoga Wagon

Horse-drawn freight wagon that originated during the 18th century in the Conestoga Creek region of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, U.S. Ideally suited for hauling freight over bad roads, the Conestoga wagon had a capacity of up to six tons, a floor curved up at each end to prevent the contents from shifting inside, and a white canvas cover to protect against bad weather;

Good-reasons Theory

In American and British metaethics, an approach that tries to establish the validity or objectivity of moral judgments by examining the modes of reasoning used to support them. The approach first appeared in An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950) by Stephen Toulmin, a British philosopher of science and ethicist. In general, the approach represents a reaction

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Johannsen, Wilhelm Ludvig

Danish botanist and geneticist whose experiments in plant heredity offered strong support to the mutation theory of the Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries (that changes in heredity come about through sudden, discrete changes of the heredity units in germ cells). Many geneticists thought Johannsen's ideas dealt a severe blow to Charles

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Resia Pass

Italian  Passo Di Resia,  German  Reschenpass, or Reschenscheideck,   pass south of the Austrian-Italian border and just east of the Swiss frontier. It is 4,934 feet (1,504 m) high and about 1 mile (1.6 km) long and separates the Unterengadin section of the Inn River valley, Austria, from the Venosta Valley or Adige River valley, Italy. The pass marks the divide between the watersheds of the Adriatic and Black seas and between the Rhaetian and Ötztal Alps. Just

Italian Literature, The Hermetic movement

Poetry in the fascist period underwent a process of involution, partly influenced by French Symbolism, with its faith in the mystical power of words, and partly under the stress of changed political conditions after World War I, during which literature had declined. Many poets of the wartime generation, weary of tradition and rhetoric, had been seeking new expression:

Monday, April 19, 2004

Ahmad Khan, Sir Sayyid

Altaf Husan Hali, Hayat-i-Javid (1901), the only comprehensive account of Sayyid Ahmad's life and work; G.F.I. Graham, The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, rev. ed. (1909); J.M.S. Baljon, The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1949); and Hadi Hussain, Syed Ahmed Khan: Pioneer of Muslim Resurgence (1970).

Sunday, April 18, 2004


Member of a community of Jews, now nearly extinct, that claims to be related by blood to those Jews of ancient Samaria who were not deported by the Assyrian conquerors of the kingdom of Israel in 722 BC. The Samaritans call themselves Bene-Yisrael (“Children of Israel”), or Shamerim (“Observant Ones”), for their sole norm of religious observance is the Pentateuch (first five books


Also spelled  Chechnia  or  Chechenia  republic in southwestern Russia, situated on the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus range. Chechnya is bordered by Russia proper on the north, Dagestan republic on the east and southeast, Georgia on the southwest, and Ingushetia republic on the west. Chechnya falls into three physical regions from south to north. In the south is the Greater Caucasus, the crest

Friday, April 16, 2004

Beas River

Also spelled  Bias , ancient (Greek)  Hyphasis , Sanskrit  Vipasa  river in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states, northwestern India. It is one of the five rivers that give the Punjab (“Five Rivers”) its name. It rises at an elevation of 14,308 feet (4,361 m) in the Rohtang Pass in the Punjab Himalayas, in central Himachal Pradesh. From there it flows south through the Kulu valley, receiving tributaries from the flanking mountains, and then turns west to flow

Thursday, April 15, 2004

China, Urban areas

The dramatic change in the urban landscape is the result of the rapid development of modern manufacturing industries and of communications. Many new towns and cities

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Middle East, Ancient

History of the region from prehistoric times to the rise of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and other areas.

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

San Cristóbal De Las Casas

City, central Chiapas estado (“state”), southeastern Mexico. It is situated on the central plateau of Chiapas, at 6,900 feet (2,100 m) above sea level. Founded about 1527 as Villa Real, the settlement was renamed on five occasions before acquiring its present name, which honours Bartolomé de Las Casas, the first bishop of Chiapas. Many colonial buildings remain in the city, the most notable

Monday, April 12, 2004

Algebra, The structural approach dominates

After the late 1930s it was clear that algebra, and in particular the structural approach within it, had become one of the most dynamic areas of research in mathematics. Structural methods, results, and concepts were actively pursued by algebraists in Germany, France, the United States, Japan, and elsewhere. The structural approach was also successfully applied to redefine

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Cézanne, Paul

French painter, one of the greatest of the Post-Impressionists, whose works and ideas were influential in the aesthetic development of many 20th-century artists and art movements, especially Cubism. Cézanne's art, misunderstood and discredited by the public during most of his life, grew out of Impressionism and

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Ganesan, Sivaji

Ganesan dropped out of school at a young age in order to join a boys' acting troupe. In 1946 he made his mark playing the title role of the Maratha emperor Sivaji (the historical character who gave him his screen name) in C.N. Annadurai's play Sivaji Kanda Indhu Rajyam. When Annadurai formed the Dravida

Saavedra Fajardo, Diego De

After studying law at the University of Salamanca, Saavedra went to Rome, where he served under the

Friday, April 09, 2004


Domei was formed in 1964 by a merger of three politically moderate federations that opposed the leftist stance of the larger and more militant union Sohyo. Unlike the majority of Sohyo members, who were public employees, most Domei members worked for private-sector firms. Domei was a supporter of the Democratic

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Trinidad And Tobago

The nation's new coalition government

Wednesday, April 07, 2004


Neoregelia leaves are often mottled, marbled,

Tuesday, April 06, 2004


Also called  Indian Turnip, Bog Onion, Brown Dragon, or Starchwort  (species Arisaema triphyllum), a North American plant of the arum family (Araceae), noted for the unusual shape of its flower. The plant is native to wet woodlands and thickets from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Texas. It is a stoutish perennial, 1 to 2.5 feet (0.3 to 0.8 m) high, and usually bears two long-stalked, three-parted leaves that overshadow the flower. The

Sunday, April 04, 2004


District, administrative county of Durham, northeastern England, in the southwestern part of the county. The district lies on both sides of the River Tees. The area north of the river belongs to the historic county of Durham, and the area to the south lies in the historic county of Yorkshire. Teesdale is mostly an upland area within the northern Pennines. Its bleak basalt

Saturday, April 03, 2004

González Martínez, Enrique

González Martínez began writing while practicing medicine in the provinces. With the coming of the Mexican Revolution (1911) he entered public life, serving in the Ministry of Education and holding diplomatic posts in Europe and various Latin-American

Friday, April 02, 2004


Any of about 20 species of ornamental and timber evergreen conifers constituting the genus Cupressus of the family Cupressaceae, distributed throughout warm-temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Many resinous, aromatic evergreen trees called cypress belong to other genera of the same family, especially

Arts, Central Asian, Mongolian Huns

In the 4th century BC the Huns started to migrate westward from the Ordos region. By the 3rd century BC they had reached the Transbaikalia and had begun to enter Mongolia, which soon became the centre of their empire. Many mounds mark their progress. Those in the Zidzha Valley lie at the same latitude as the Pazyryk mounds and were subjected to similar conditions of freezing,