Wednesday, March 31, 2004

By, John

By, commissioned as second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers in 1799, worked in Canada (1802–11) on the fortification of Quebec and was charged with the building of a canal at Les Cèdres on the St. Lawrence.

Kleiber, Erich

Kleiber studied in Prague and between 1912 and 1922 conducted at several German opera houses. In 1923 he became general

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Chaco War

(1932–35), costly conflict between Bolivia and Paraguay. Hostile incidents began as early as 1928 over the Chaco Boreal, a wilderness region of about 100,000 square miles (259,000 square km) north of the Pilcomayo River and west of the Paraguay River that forms part of the Gran Chaco. The conflict stemmed from the outcome of the War of the Pacific (1879–84), in which Chile defeated Bolivia and annexed that nation's

Lord Chief Justice

In England and Wales, the head of the Queen's (or King's) Bench Division of the High Court of Justice and next in rank to the lord chancellor. Appointed by the crown on the nomination of the prime minister, he usually presides over the Court of Criminal Appeal and is an ex officio member of the Court of Appeal. He is invariably raised to the peerage on appointment and so is able

Saturday, March 27, 2004


Though 'ayyarun were found fighting for Islam on the frontiers of inner Asia, the most thorough documentation of these warriors describes their activities in Baghdad in the 10th–12th century, a picture that may not be typical of 'ayy

Friday, March 26, 2004

Hinckley And Bosworth

Borough (district), administrative and historic county of Leicestershire, England. It comprises the town of Hinckley, an important centre of the hosiery industry since framework knitting was introduced there in 1640, as well as the towns of Market Bosworth and Earl Shilton, which is a centre of both the hosiery and footwear industries. The Battle of Bosworth Field was

Thursday, March 25, 2004

Rouher, Eugène

He was elected to the National Assembly in 1848, and his conservative attitudes and fear of disorder led him to support Louis-Napoléon. Appointed minister of justice in 1849, he suppressed

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

China, The Tsinling Mountains

The Tsinling Mountains in Shensi Province are the greatest chain of mountains east of the Plateau of Tibet. The mountain chain consists of a high and rugged barrier extending from Kansu to Honan; geographers use a line between the chain and the Huai River to divide China proper into two parts—North and South. The altitude of the mountains varies from 3,000 to 10,000 feet. The western

Sunday, March 21, 2004


The mellophone, a circular tenor horn (althorn), is usually built right handed and looks like a French horn. It bears

Iowa, Cultural life

A widely dispersed population with small urban centres makes it difficult for Iowans to support many of the cultural amenities that exist in large urban settings. Traveling shows, including theatre and dance, symphonies, and guest artists visit many places in the state each year. The major cultural centres are the universities and colleges. The fine arts are notably

Friday, March 19, 2004


Plural  Furies,  Latin  Furia,  plural  Furiae,  Greek  Erinys,  plural  Erinyes,  also called  Eumenes (“Kind One”),  plural  Eumenides,   in Greco-Roman mythology, one of a group of goddesses of vengeance. They were probably personified curses but possibly were originally conceived of as ghosts of the murdered. According to the Greek poet Hesiod they were the daughters of Gaea (Earth) and sprang from the blood of her mutilated spouse Uranus; in the plays of Aeschylus they were the daughters of Nyx; in those

Spectroscopy, X-ray tubes

The traditional method of producing X rays is based on the bombardment of high-energy electrons on a metal target in a vacuum tube. A typical X-ray tube consists of a cathode (a source of electrons, usually a heated filament) and an anode, which are mounted within an evacuated chamber or envelope. A potential difference of 10–100 kilovolts is maintained between cathode (the

Wednesday, March 17, 2004


Formerly  (until 1969) Gaberones,   town, capital of Botswana. The seat of government was transferred there from Mafeking (now spelled Mafikeng), South Africa, in 1965, one year before Botswana became independent of Britain. Gaborone is located on the Cape-Zimbabwe railway and is the site of government offices, parliament buildings, health facilities, a thermal power station, and an airport. It is the seat of

Computers, Early experiments

As the technology for realizing a computer was being honed by the business machine companies in the early 20th century, the theoretical foundations were being laid in academia. During the 1930s, two important strains of computer-related research were being pursued at two universities in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One strain produced the Differential Analyzer, the other

Monday, March 15, 2004

Strathcona And Mount Royal (of Mount Royal And Of Glencoe), Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron

Smith was apprenticed to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838 and worked for many years at the fur trade in Labrador. He served as chief commissioner for the company in Canada from 1870 to 1874, and, after becoming the principal shareholder, he was governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from


Common hydrated sodium and calcium aluminosilicate mineral, (Ca,Na2)Al2Si4O12×6H2O, in the zeolite family. Its brittle, glassy, white or flesh-red, rhombohedral crystals often are found in cavities in basalt or andesite, as in Trentino, Italy; Northern Ireland; Melbourne, Australia; and the area near the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia. Within the crystals, the atoms of silicon, aluminum,

Saturday, March 13, 2004

An Lu-shan

Pinyin  An Lushan , original name (Wade-Giles romanization)  K'ang , imperial name  Hsiung Wu , canonized name  Yen La Wang  Chinese general of Iranian and Turkish descent who, as leader of a rebellion in AD 755, proclaimed himself emperor and unsuccessfully attempted to found a dynasty to replace the T'ang dynasty. Despite its failure, the rebellion precipitated far-reaching social and economic change.

Chase, Salmon P(ortland)

Chase received part of his education from his uncle Philander Chase, the first Episcopal bishop of Ohio

Thursday, March 11, 2004

Mountain, Landforms associated with hot spot volcanism

Some volcanic phenomena occur at large distances from plate boundaries (for example, on the Hawaiian Islands or at Yellowstone National Park in the western continental United States). Also, as noted above, volcanism is especially intense at some parts of the mid-ocean ridge system (as in Iceland or the Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific). Magmas erupted in these

Wednesday, March 10, 2004

Henderson, Rickey

Henderson was an All-American running back in football as a high school athlete in Oakland, California. He chose to play baseball over football, however, and competed in the minor leagues

Mau Escarpment

Steep natural rampart along the western rim of the Great Rift Valley in western Kenya, west and south of the town of Nakuru; it rises to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) on the Equator. Its crest is covered with a vast forest. To the south the woods are more open, and the plateau falls to an open country drained toward the Dogilani plains.

Monday, March 08, 2004

Sun Ra

(HERMAN ["SONNY"] BLOUNT), U.S. jazz pianist, arranger, and composer (b. May 1914?, Birmingham, Ala.--d. May 30, 1993, Birmingham), led an ensemble whose performances were as much theatre as concert. Early in his career he played boogie-woogie, blues, and swing, and in 1946-47 he was pianist with Fletcher Henderson's orchestra. He also was active in the experimental jazz movement in Chicago and from the 1950s on, under

Sessions, Roger (huntington)

He studied at Harvard University and at the Yale School of Music and later took composition lessons from Ernest Bloch. After several years in Europe he returned to the United

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Han Gan

Wade-Giles romanization  Han Kan   Chinese painter of the Tang dynasty, who, though recorded as having done wall paintings on Buddhist and Daoist themes, is best remembered for his paintings of horses. Han emphasized the strength and nobility of the horses of the Tang empire by using a tautly controlled line and compositions of great clarity. The horse as a subject of painting was continued

Gad Al-haq Ali Gad Al-haq

Egyptian religious leader who, as grand sheikh of al-Azhar, the Muslim world's highest religious body, issued rulings based on strict Islamic orthodoxy, including support for female circumcision and harsh punishment for those breaking the fast during Ramadan (b. April 5, 1917--d. March 15, 1996).

Thursday, March 04, 2004

Biblical Literature, Purpose and theme

The Revelation (i.e., Apocalypse) to John is an answer in apocalyptic terms to the needs of the church in time of persecution, as it awaits the end-time expected in the near future. The purpose of the book is to encourage and admonish the church to be steadfast and endure. The form of an apocalypse shows affinities with contemporary Jewish, Oriental, and Hellenistic writings


Solid residue remaining after certain types of bituminous coals are heated to a high temperature out of contact with air until substantially all of the volatile constituents have been driven off. The residue is chiefly carbon, with minor amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Also present in coke is the mineral matter in the original coal, chemically

Wednesday, March 03, 2004

Jack Of Diamonds

Also called  Knave Of Diamonds,  Russian  Bubnovy Valet,   group of artists founded in Moscow in 1909, whose members were for the next few years the leading exponents of avant-garde art in Russia. The group's first exhibition, held in December 1910, included works by the French Cubists Albert Gleizes, Henri Le Fauconnier, and André Lhote; other paintings were exhibited by Wassily Kandinsky and Alexey von Jawlensky, both Russian artists

Tuesday, March 02, 2004


Variety of contredanse that was popular in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in France and England. It was danced in quick 2/4 time by a double line of couples, men facing women; the couples progressed to the head of the line as the figures of the dance were executed. The vogue of the ecossaise inspired musical compositions for piano bearing this name by Franz Schubert and

Monday, March 01, 2004

Kashmir, Vale Of

Scenic intermontane valley between the main Himalayan ranges (northeast) and the Pir Panjal Range (southwest), in northwestern India. The valley is an ancient lake basin 85 mi (140 km) long, 20 mi wide, and 5,300 ft (1,620 m) high. Drained by the upper Jhelum River, the valley is lined by 12,000–16,000-ft-high mountains that help shelter it from the wet southwest monsoon. It is the centre of population for the Kashmir